Literature type: Scientific
Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
Volume: 23 , Pages: 339-356.
Full reference: Donne-Goussé, C., Laudet, V. & Hänni, C. 2002. A molecular phylogeny of anseriformes based on mitochondrial DNA analysis. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 23: 339-356. https://www.dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00019-2
To study the phylogenetic relationships among Anseriformes, sequences for the complete mitochondrial control region (CR) were determined from 45 waterfowl representing 24 genera, i.e., half of the existing genera. To confirm the results based on CR analysis we also analyzed representative species based on two mitochondrial protein-coding genes, cytochrome b (cytb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2). These data allowed us to construct a robust phylogeny of the Anseriformes and to compare it with existing phylogenies based on morphological or molecular data. Chauna and Dendrocygna were identified as early offshoots of the Anseriformes. All the remaining taxa fell into two clades that correspond to the two subfamilies Anatinae and Anserinae. Within Anserinae Branta and Anser cluster together, whereas Coscoroba, Cygnus, and Cereopsis form a relatively weak clade with Cygnus diverging first. Five clades are clearly recognizable among Anatinae: (i) the Anatini with Anas and Lophonetta; (ii) the Aythyini with Aythya and Netta; (iii) the Cairinini with Cairina and Aix; (iv) the Mergini with Mergus, Bucephala, Melanitta, Callonetta, Somateria, and Clangula, and (v) the Tadornini with Tadorna, Chloephaga, and Alopochen. The Tadornini diverged early on from the Anatinae; then the Mergini and a large group that comprises the Anatini, Aythyini, Cairinini, and two isolated genera, Chenonetta and Marmaronetta, diverged. The phylogeny obtained with the control region appears more robust than the one obtained with mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2 and cytb. This suggests that the CR is a powerful tool for bird phylogeny, not only at a small scale (i.e., relationships between species) but also at the family level. Whereas morphological analysis effectively resolved the split between Anatinae and Anserinae and the existence of some of the clades, the precise composition of the clades are different when morphological and molecular data are compared
Literature type: Thesis
Full reference: Ruokonen, M. 2001. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of the Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser erythropus). , Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. A Scientiae Rerum Naturalium 360. Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, Finland.
Analyses of mitochondrial control region sequences were used to infer phylogeny of Anser species, phylogeography of the lesser white-fronted goose, and genetic background of a captive stock. The genetic distances among the Anser species ranged from 0.9 to 5.5% in the complete control region sequences and supported the view of close relatedness of these species. Among the four most closely related species, the bean, pink-footed, white-fronted and lesser white-fronted goose, the branching order is uncertain. The short internal branches and low support for the branching order suggest that the species have diverged recently within short time-intervals. The mtDNA tree obtained is incongruent with the traditional view of the species relationships, but the reasons for this remain to be clarified. Two diverged mitochondrial lineages were found in the lesser white-fronted goose and a refugial origin was proposed. Basal haplotypes are geographically widespread and indicate a recent common ancestry for populations. The derived haplotypes are confined to singular breeding populations and suggest restrictions to the present female gene flow. A shift in the frequency of the mtDNA lineages approximately coincides with a migratory divide in the Taimyr Peninsula. Low mtDNA diversity and significant difference in the haplotype frequencies observed in Fennoscandian subpopulation suggested that it should be considered as a management unit. The fossil record was examined to gain additional information about the colonisation history of the species, but was found to be of limited use. The captive lesser white-fronted goose stock used for reintroduction/restocking was shown to be incompatible with the Fennoscandian wild population. Some captive individuals carried the mtDNA of the white-fronted goose suggesting a hybrid origin. Hybridisation has probably occurred during captive propagation, but to clarify further the extent of introgression, nuclear markers should be applied. The structure and evolution of the control region were studied by comparing complete avian sequences. Saturation was found to occur at pairwise divergences of 10% as shown for third codon positions of the mitochondrial genes previously. In pairwise comparisons of the control region and cytochrome b sequences, the rate of divergence varied among the lineages. Two conserved sequence blocks showed considerable sequence conservation when compared to mammalian sequences.
Literature type: Scientific
Journal: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Volume: 13 , Pages: 532-540.
Full reference: Ruokonen, M., Kvist, L. & Lumme, J. 2000. Close relatedness between mitochondrial DNA from seven Anser goose species. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 13: 532-540. https://www.dx.doi.org/DOI: 10.1046/j.1420-9101.2000.00184.x
The phylogenetic relationships of seven goose species and two of the subspecies representing the genus Anser were studied by approximately 1180 bp of mitochondrial DNA tRNAglu, control region and tRNAphe sequences. Despite obvious morphological and behavioural affinities among the species, their evolutionary relationships have not been studied previously. The small amount of genetic differentiation observed in the mitochondrial DNA indicates an extremely close evolutionary relationship between the Anser species. The sequence divergences between the species (0.9±5.5%) are among the lowest reported for avian species with speciation events of Anser geese dating to late Pliocene and Pleistocene. The species grouped into four mtDNA lineages: (1) snow and Ross' goose, (2) greylag goose, (3) white-fronted goose, and (4) bean, pink-footed and lesser white-fronted goose. The phylogenetic relationships of the most closely related species, bean, pink-footed and lesser white-fronted goose, indicate a period of rapid cladogenesis. The poor agreement between morphological relationships and the phylogenetic relationships indicated by mtDNA sequences implies that either ancestral polymorphism and lineage sorting, hybridization and introgression or convergent evolution has been involved.
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