Literature type: Thesis
Full reference: Markkola, J. 2022. Ecology and conservation of the Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus. , PhD thesis, Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. A Scientiae Rerum Naturalium 770. Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, Finland.
Keywords: spring arrival, Anser erythropus, Anser fabalis, breeding schedule, habitat, diet selection, meadow management, population genetic structure, Finland
I studied the rare and threatened lesser white-fronted goose (Anser erythropus), abbreviated LWfG in 1989–1996 in sub-arctic Finnish Lapland (I). The studied subpopulation consisted of 2–15 breeding pairs annually. A total of 30 broods were observed with an average of 2.9 goslings per brood. The 1st year survival of tagged 10 geese was low. Satellite locations, recoveries and resightings were received from NW Russia, Kazakhstan and the Azov Sea area. Cold spells had a negative, and the sum of effective temperatures by 5 July a positive influence on reproduction. Habitat selection (II) was studied in the same area. LWfG preferred the vicinity of water, flat close-range landscape, low forest height and intermediate relative altitudes. LWfG aggregated in the vicinity of conspecifics within the preferred habitats. The averaged RSF model assigned observation and random points correctly with 83.4% success. Locations of historical observations of LWfG matched the predicted distribution of breeding sites. (III) Spring migration patterns on the Bothnian Bay coast of LWfG were examined in 1907–1916 and 1949–2014 and the taiga bean goose (Anser fabalis fabalis) in 1975–2014. Arrival of the short-distance migrant A. fabalis advanced more and earlier than the long-distance migrant A. erythropus, 10.9 days since late 1980’s vs. 5.3 days since the beginning of the 2000’s. In the LWfG, the best model for explaining variation in timing included global and local temperatures, in A. fabalis global and local temperatures and winter NAO. Increasing global temperatures seem to explain trends in both. In the spring staging places of the Bothnian Bay almost all dietary items of the LWfG were Monocotyledons, mostly grasses growing in extensive sea-shore meadows (IV). Only Phragmites, Festuca and possibly Triglochin palustris were preferred. Lesser White-fronts preferred extensive natural meadows. Mowing and grazing benefit the restoration of habitats. Genetic structuring of the LWfG was examined in its whole distribution area from Fennoscandia to East Asia (V). A fragment of the control region of mtDNA was sequenced from 110 individuals. 15 mtDNA haplotypes were assigned to two mtDNA lineages. Molecular variance showed significant structuring among populations: the main western in north-western Russia – Central Siberia, the main eastern in East Asia and the Nordic one, which earns a status as an independent management unit.
Literature type: Scientific
Journal: Ecology and Evolution
Volume: 10 , Pages: 5281-5292.
Full reference: Pingyang, Z., Ye-ai, Z., Yonghong, X., Siqi, Z., Xinsheng, C., Feng, L., Zhengmiao, D., Hong, Z. & Wei, T. 2020. Hydrology-driven responses of herbivorous geese in relation to changes in food quantity and quality. Ecology and Evolution 10: 5281-5292. https://www.dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6272
Keywords: Bean goose, diet, Dongting Lake, wetland, food shortage, habitat selection, China
East Dongting Lake is a Ramsar site and a particularly important wintering ground for herbivorous geese along the East Asian‐Australasian Flyway. The operation of the Three Gorges Dam has changed the water regime and has a significant impact on wetland ecosystems downstream. We studied the responses of two sympatric herbivorous goose species, the Lesser white‐fronted goose Anser erythropus and Bean goose Anser fabalis, to habitat change by investigating their food conditions, habitat selection, and diet composition in the wintering periods of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018, which had early and late water recession, respectively. It was expected that the contrasting water regimes would result in different food conditions and geese responses. The results showed that the food quality and quantity differed significantly between winters. As responses to the high‐quantity/low‐quality food during 2016/2017, more geese switched to feeding on mudflat and exploited plants such as dicotyledons and moss. The tall swards of Carex spp. (dominant plants in the meadow) that developed during the first growing season decreased the food accessibility during the second growing season and hindered the exploitation of newly generated shoots by the geese, which was further confirmed by our clipping control experiment. Nearly all the geese chose to feed on meadow, and Carex spp. made up the majority of their diet in 2017/2018 when there was more low‐quantity/high‐quality food. Compared with the globally vulnerable Lesser white‐fronted geese, the larger‐sized Bean geese seemed to be less susceptible to winter food shortages and exhibited more stable responses. We concluded that the food quality–quantity condition was the external factor influencing the geese responses, while morphological and physiological traits could be the internal factors causing different responses between the two species. This study enhanced the understanding of the influence that habitat change exerts on herbivorous geese in their wintering site in the context of the Three Gorges Dam operation. We suggested that regulating hydrological regime was important in terms of wetland management and species conservation.
Literature type: Scientific
Journal: Bird Conservation International
Volume: 27 , Pages: 355-370.
Full reference: Karmiris, I., Kazantzidis, S., Platis, P. & Papachristou, T.G. 2017. Diet selection by wintering Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus and the role of food availability. Bird Conservation International 27: 355-370. https://www.dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0959270916000393
Keywords: diet selection, food availability, diet composition, droppings, protein, Kerkini Lake, Echinochloa crus-galli, Cyperus esculentus, Scirpus lacustris, Ranunculus sceleratus
The Fennoscandian population of the Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus (LWfG) is on the verge of extinction and migrates from northern Fennoscandia to Greece on a regular seasonal basis. For the first time, diet selection was investigated during two years at Kerkini Lake, a wintering site in Greece. The relative use of LWfG’s feeding habitats was systematically recorded by visual observations of the LWfG flocks. Food availability was measured by the relative cover of available vegetation types while the diet composition was determined by the microhistological analysis of droppings. In addition, we determined crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and acid detergent lignin content of the most preferred plant species by LWfG and all vegetation categories that contributed to LWfG diet in the middle of the duration of their stay at Kerkini Lake and after their departure from the lake. LWfG feeding habitat was exclusively marshy grassland in water less than 5 cm deep up to 300–400 m away from the shore. LWfG selected a diverse number of plant species (33), however, grass made up the 58% of their diets. The most preferred plant species were Echinochloa crus-galli, Cyperus esculentus, Scirpus lacustris and Ranunculus sceleratus. LWfG departed from Kerkini Lake in mid-December to the Evros Delta (Thrace, eastern Greece), when either food availability falls in very low levels or flooding occurred in their main feeding habitat. Consequently, as long as food and habitat resources are available for LWfG, it is very likely that the birds will winter mainly at Kerkini Lake and not at the Evros Delta, which will contribute to further minimisation of the theoretical risk of accidental shooting of LWfG at the latter wintering habitat. Thus, future conservation actions should primarily focus on the grassland improvement at Kerkini Lake enhancing the availability of food resources for LWfG (mainly grasses) and the protection of the feeding habitat from flooding.
Literature type: Scientific
Journal: Journal of Ornithology
Volume: 155 , Pages: 707-712.
Full reference: Wang, X, Fox, A.D., Zhuang, X., Cao, L., Meng, F. & Cong, P. 2014. Shifting to an energy-poor diet for nitrogen? Not the case for wintering herbivorous Lesser White-fronted Geese in China Journal of Ornithology 155: 707-712. https://www.dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10336-014-1056-6
Keywords: East Dongting Lake, Energy budget, foraging decisions, Nitrogen budget, Recessional grasslands, Uric acid
Geese often forage on mid-winter foods that fail to satisfy daily energy needs, but they may do so to acquire other nutrients, such as nitrogen. We tested thishypothesis by evaluating nitrogen budgets, namely thebalance of nitrogen income against expenditure, of winteringLesser White-fronted Geese Anser erythropus feedingat two sites within East Dongting Lake, China, where they could and could not balance daily energy budgets.Geese could balance nitrogen budgets in energy-rich habitats but were less able to do so in habitats where they failed to balance energy budgets. This study presents the first full nitrogen budget for a wintering goose species, and suggests that, rather than acting as a source of nitrogen, use of energy-poor but undisturbed habitats may represent a refuge from human disturbance at other habitats.
Literature type: Report
Full reference: Karmiris, I., Papachristou, T., Platis, P. & Kazantzidis, S. 2014. The diet of the wintering Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser erythropus L., 1758) in two wetlands in Greece. , Final Rep., action A5, LIFE10NAT/GR/000638 project “Safeguarding the Lesser White–fronted goose Fennoscandian population in key wintering and staging sites within the European flyway». Hellenic Agr. Org. “DEMETER”/Forest Res. Inst., Thessaloniki, Greece.
Keywords: Greece, diet, food, selection, availability, Kerkini, Evros delta, droppings, habitat use, vegetation, EU-Life
Literature type: General
Journal: Goose Bulletin
Volume: 17 , Pages: 2-5.
Full reference: Wang, X., Fox, A.D., Cong, P. & Cao, L. 2013. Recent research on the Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus in China. Goose Bulletin: 17, 2-5.
Keywords: winter counts, China, habitat preferences, diett, hydrology, research
Literature type: Thesis
Full reference: Niemelä, M. 2009. Biotic interactions and vegetation management on coastal meadows. , Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. A Scientiae Rerum Naturalium 360. Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, Finland.
Keywords: cattle, coastal meadow, diet of geese, grazing, management, plant\ncompetition, plant parasitism, threatened species, vegetation succession, Finland, Bothnian Bay
Conservation of rare habitats and species are central elements in the management of semi-natural grasslands of high biodiversity. Understanding the impacts of various abiotic and biotic interactions and management methods on threatened species is fundamental to their conservation. In the present study, effects of competition, plant parasitism, grazing and mowing were studied at the community level in Bothnian Bay coastal meadows and in greenhouse. This was the first time when the impacts of various biotic interactions on the critically endangered creeping alkali grass (Puccinellia phryganodes) have been explored in detail in one of its rare occurrences in the boreal vegetation zone in Europe. In addition, questions related to ecological and economical sustainability of cattle grazing on coastal meadows were examined. Puccinellia phryganodes was found to suffer severely from competition with taller graminoids. Simulated and actual grazing by greylag goose, Anser anser, as well as infection by a hemiparasitic plant, Odontites litoralis, were found to indirectly benefit P. phryganodes by decreasing the competitive advantage of its competitors. In spite of the relatively intensive grazing by greylag goose in the field, P. phryganodes experienced a drastic decrease during four years in the grazed experimental quadrats and simultaneously the proportion of the taller graminoids increased substantially. Primary succession of coastal meadow vegetation was found to progress rapidly and continuous formation of suitable open habitats is therefore crucial for the subordinate species. Mowing was found to be an effective management method for some threatened plant species in coastal meadows, but not for P. phryganodes, which would probably benefit more, for example, from livestock grazing. Both lightly and rather intensively managed large open meadows could provide optimal habitats for the critically endangered lesser white fronted goose (Anser erythropus) as well as for the greylag goose. The relatively low and variable yield of the coastal meadow vegetation compared to that of cultivated grasslands sets limits how management by cattle grazing can be implemented. Key factors for both the biodiversity management and livestock production in coastal meadows are timing of the grazing season, intensity of grazing and selection of suitable types of animals.
Literature type: Rep.article
Full reference: Karmiris, I., Kazantzidis, S. & Panagiotopoulou, M. 2009. A note on the diet of the Lesser White fronted Goose wintering in the Evros Delta, Greece. , In: Tolvanen, P., Øien, I.J. & Ruokolainen, K. (eds.). Conservation of Lesser White-fronted Goose on the European migration route. Final report of the EU LIFE-Nature project 2005–2009. WWF Finland Report 27 & NOF Rapportserie Report No 1-2009: pp. 68-70.
Keywords: monitoring, EU-Life, annual report, Fennoscandian, food, habitat
Literature type: Scientific
Volume: 26 , Pages: 705-714.
Full reference: Markkola, J., Niemela, M., & Rytkonen, S. 2003. Diet selection of lesser white-fronted geese Anser erythropus at a spring staging-area. Ecography 26: 705-714. https://www.dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0906-7590.2003.03576.x
Keywords: diett, spring staging
We studied diet selection of the globally threatened lesser white-fronted goose Anser eythropus at a spring staging area on the island of Hailuoto (64°00′N, 24°45′E), off the western coast of Finland. We determined the diet using droppings, which were collected in late May, when the geese had left the area and migrated northwards. The sample potentially comprised of ejecta from 31 different individuals. Plant idengification was based on visual determination of epidermal fragments. A total of 100 droppings were sampled using a point quadrat method. We calculated the percentage of each idengified taxon in each dropping and related this to the availability of the corresponding taxon in the meadow. We measured preference for each taxon using Chesson's electivity index (ɛi) and tested them by bootstrap resampling. The diet contained 9 taxa of the ca 40 available. Almost all dietary items were Monocotyledons (99.9%), mostly grasses (88.7%) including Festuca rubra (43%), Phragmites australis (30%) and Calamagrostis stricta (13%). Only Phragmites (ɛ=0.73, p=0.000), Festuca (ɛ=0.52, p=0.004) and possibly Triglochin palustris (ɛ=0.70, p=0.125) were preferred, all other species were avoided. All preferred species were quite common and other goose species exploit them too. The lesser white-fronted geese preferred large natural meadows that were five times broader than an “average” Bothnian Bay meadow. All forms of mowing and grazing management benefit the restoration of lesser white-fronted goose habitats at the landscape level. Festuca and especially Triglochin benefit from such management. Reeds, Phragmites, whose spread has been the main cause of coastal meadow deterioration, can be controlled by management, but can also be maintained among other vegetation if mowing is less frequent or grazing not too intensive.
Literature type: General
Journal: Bulletin of the goose, swan and duck study group of Eastern Europe and North Asia (Casarca)
Volume: 7 , Pages: 116-129.
Language: Russian (In Russian, with English summary and legends).Download:
Full reference: Rosenfeld, S.B. 2001. [Feeding ecology of the Lesser White-fronted Goose in the southern tundra of Yamal in 1998.], Bulletin of the goose, swan and duck study group of Eastern Europe and North Asia (Casarca): 7, 116-129.
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